Tires usually consist of three parts: a tire casing, an inner tube and a pad. There is also a need for an inner tube, and the inner layer of the tire has a rubber layer with a good airtightness, and a special rim is required. The structure of tires in all countries of the world is developing in the direction of tubeless, meridian structure, flat (the ratio of height and width of tire section is small) and weight reduction.
The casing is composed of a carcass, a buffer layer (or belt), a tread, a sidewall and a bead. The tire section can be divided into several separate areas: the crown zone, the shoulder zone (tread slope), the flexion zone (the sidewall zone), the reinforcement zone and the bead zone. 1 carcass: also known as the fetal body. It generally refers to a force-bearing structure of a pneumatic tire composed of one or several plies (having strength, softness, and elasticity) integral with the bead.
* Ply: It is a layer composed of juxtaposed rubber cords in the carcass. It is the force-bearing layer of the tire to ensure the necessary strength and dimensional stability of the tire. *Bead: The part of the tire that is mounted on the rim, consisting of a bead core, a ply edging and a chafer. It can withstand the tension generated by the internal pressure, and at the same time overcome the lateral force of the tire during cornering, so that the tire does not come out of the rim. Therefore, it must have a high strength, the structure should be tight and strong, and it is not easy to deform.
The carcass needs to have sufficient strength and elasticity to withstand strong vibrations and shocks, and to withstand multiple deformations caused by radial, lateral, and circumferential forces acting on the tire during travel. The carcass consists of one or more layers of drapes that provide the necessary strength to the carcass as well as the entire casing.
2 Buffer layer (or belt layer): a rubber ply or glue layer between the biased tire tread and the carcass, does not extend to the intermediate material layer of the bead. It is used to cushion the external impact force, protect the carcass and improve the adhesion between the tread and the ply. The buffer layer of a radial structure tire is generally referred to as a belt layer due to its different functions. Under the base of the tread tire tread, the material layer of the carcass is hooped in the circumferential direction of the crown centerline.
3 tread: the rubber layer on the outermost surface of the tire that is in contact with the road surface (usually, the tire crown,
Shoulder: The edge of the crown, the sidewall of the sidewall, and the rubber of the outermost layer of the reinforcing zone are collectively referred to as tread rubber.
The tread is used to prevent mechanical damage and early wear of the carcass, to transmit the traction and braking force of the car to the road surface, to increase the grip of the tire and the road surface (soil), and to absorb the oscillation of the tire during operation.
The part of the tread that directly contacts the road surface during normal driving is called the running surface. The surface of the running surface is composed of blocks and grooves of different shapes, and the protruding portion is a block. The surface of the block can increase the grip of the tire and the road surface (soil) and ensure the necessary anti-slip force of the vehicle. The lower layer of the groove is called the tread base and is used to cushion shock and shock.